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ELISA: Sandwich ELISA Protocol - Standard


  • Maxisorb 96-well plate
  • Specific antibody from species A as capture antibody
  • Specific antibody from species B or biotinylated antibody from species A as detector antibody
  • Goat anti-species B IgG peroxidase (HRP) conjugated or Streptavidin peroxidase (HRP) conjugated
  • Microplate shaker
  • Microplate absorbance reader with filters at 450 nm and a reference wavelength (e.g. 620-650 nm)


  • Coating buffer: 0.1 M Na-carbonate, pH 9.6 (store 0.5 M stock at -20°C)
  • Washing buffer: Tris buffered saline (TBS) with 0.05% Tween 20 (TBST)
  • Blocking buffer: 5% skimmed milk in TBST
  • Substrate solution: Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) reagent for development
  • Stop solution: 0.25 M H2SO4 to stop development


  1. Coat 96-well microplate with 100 µl capture antibody (200-400 ng/well) in coating buffer. Seal the 96-well microplate and incubate overnight at 4°C.
  2. Block the surface with blocking buffer for 1 h at RT and 700 rpm.
  3. Wash the plate three times with washing buffer (at least 5 min per wash).
  4. Apply antigen diluted in blocking buffer and incubate for 2 h at RT and 700 rpm.
  5. Wash three times with washing buffer.
  6. Apply detector antibody diluted in blocking buffer (dilution 1:1000 up to 1:8000) and incubate for 2 h at RT and 700 rpm.
  7. Wash three times with washing buffer.
  8. Incubate with HRP-coupled goat anti-species B antibody or HRP-conjugated streptavidin, diluted in blocking buffer (1:5000 - 1:10000) for 1 h at RT and 700 rpm.
  9. Wash three times with washing buffer.
  10. Add 100 µl substrate solution for development.
  11. Stop the reaction after 5-10 min with 100 µl stop solution and read the absorbance at 450 nm (ref: 620-650 nm).